Manual Reference Pages  - SUFFIXES (7)


suffixes - list of file suffixes




It is customary to indicate the contents of a file with the file suffix, which consists of a period, followed by one or more letters. Many standard utilities, such as compilers, use this to recognize the type of file they are dealing with. The make(1) utility is driven by rules based on file suffix.

Following is a list of suffixes which are likely to be found on a Linux system.

SuffixFile type
-backup file
.CC++ source code, equivalent to .cc
.FFortran source with cpp(1) directives
 or file compressed using freeze
.Sassembler source with cpp(1) directives
.Yfile compressed using yabba
.Zfile compressed using compress(1)
.[0-9]+gfTeX generic font files
.[0-9]+pkTeX packed font files
.[1-9]manual page for the corresponding section
.[1-9][a-z]manual page for section plus subsection
.astatic object code library
.adX application default resource file
.adaAda source (may be body, spec, or combination)
.adbAda body source
.adsAda spec source
.afmPostScript font metrics
.alPerl autoload file
.amautomake(1) input file
.arcarc(1) archive
.arjarj(1) archive
.ascPGP ASCII-armored data
.asm(GNU) assembler source file
.auAudio sound file
.auxLaTeX auxiliary file
.avi(msvideo) movie
.awkAWK language program
.bLILO boot loader image
.bakbackup file
.bashbash(1) shell script
.bbbasic block list data produced by
 gcc -ftest-coverage
.bbgbasic block graph data produced by
 gcc -ftest-coverage
.bblBibTeX output
.bdfX font file
.bibTeX bibliographic database, BibTeX input
.bmbitmap source
.bz2file compressed using bzip2(1)
.cC source
.catmessage catalog files
.ccC++ source
.cfconfiguration file
.cfgconfiguration file
.cgiWWW content generating script or program
.clsLaTeX Class definition
.classJava compiled byte-code
.confconfiguration file
.configconfiguration file
.cppequivalent to .cc
.cshcsh(1) shell script
.cxxequivalent to .cc
.datdata file
.debDebian software package
.defModula-2 source for definition modules
.defother definition files
.descinitial part of mail message unpacked with
.difffile differences (diff(1) command output)
.dirdbm data base directory file
.docdocumentation file
.dscDebian Source Control (source package)
.dtxLaTeX package source file
.dviTeX’s device independent output
.elEmacs-Lisp source
.elccompiled Emacs-Lisp source
.epsencapsulated PostScript
.expExpect source code
.fFortran source
.f77Fortran 77 source
.f90Fortran 90 source
.fasprecompiled Common-Lisp
.fiFortran include files
.figFIG image file (used by xfig(1))
.fmtTeX format file
.gifCompuserve Graphics Image File format
.gmoGNU format message catalog
.gsfGhostscript fonts
.gzfile compressed using gzip(1)
.hC or C++ header files
.helphelp file
.hfequivalent to .help
.hlpequivalent to .help
.htmpoor man’s .html
.htmlHTML document used with the World Wide Web
.hqx7-bit encoded Macintosh file
.iC source after preprocessing
.iconbitmap source
.idxreference or datum-index file for hypertext
 or database system
.imagebitmap source
.inconfiguration template, especially for GNU Autoconf
.infofiles for the Emacs info browser
.info-[0-9]+split info files
.insLaTeX package install file for docstrip
.itclitcl source code;
 itcl ([incr Tcl]) is an OO extension of tcl
.javaa Java source file
.jpegJoint Photographic Experts Group format
.jpgpoor man’s .jpeg
.kmaplyx(1) keymap
.lequivalent to .lex or .lisp
.lexlex(1) or flex(1) files
.lhalharc archive
.libCommon-Lisp library
.lispLisp source
.lnfiles for use with lint(1)
.loglog file, in particular produced by TeX
.lsmLinux Software Map entry
.lspCommon-Lisp source
.lzhlharc archive
.mObjective-C source code
.m4m4(1) source
.macmacro files for various programs
.manmanual page (usually source rather than formatted)
.mapmap files for various programs
.meNroff source using the me macro package
.mfMetafont (font generator for TeX) source
.mgpMagicPoint file
.mmsources for groff(1) in mm - format
.moMessage catalog binary file
.modModula-2 source for implementation modules
.mov(quicktime) movie
.mpMetapost source
.mp2MPEG Layer 2 (audio) file
.mp3MPEG Layer 3 (audio) file
.mpegmovie file
.oobject file
.oldold or backup file
.origbackup (original) version of a file, from patch(1)
.outoutput file, often executable program (a.out)
.pPascal source
.pagdbm data base data file
.patchfile differences for patch(1)
.pbmportable bitmap format
.pcfX11 font files
.pdfAdobe Portable Data Format
 (use Acrobat/acroread or xpdf)
.perlPerl source (see .ph, .pl and .pm)
.pfaPostScript font definition files, ASCII format
.pfbPostScript font definition files, binary format
.pgmportable greymap format
.pgpPGP binary data
.phPerl header file
.phpPHP program file
.php3PHP3 program file
.pidFile to store daemon PID (e.g.,
.plTeX property list file or Perl library file
.pmPerl module
.pngPortable Network Graphics file
.poMessage catalog source
.podperldoc(1) file
.ppmportable pixmap format
.prbitmap source
.psPostScript file
.pyPython source
.pyccompiled python
.qtquicktime movie
.rRATFOR source (obsolete)
.rejpatches that patch(1) couldn’t apply
.rpmRPM software package
.rtfRich Text Format file
.rulesrules for something
.sassembler source
.sastub libraries for a.out shared libraries
.scsc(1) spreadsheet commands
.scmScheme source code
.sedsed source file
.sgmlSGML source file
.shsh(1) scripts
.shararchive created by the shar(1) utility
.soShared library or dynamically loadable object
.sqlSQL source
.sqmlSQML schema or query program
.styLaTeX style files
.symModula-2 compiled definition modules
.tararchive created by the tar(1) utility
.tar.Ztar(1) archive compressed with compress(1)
.tar.bz2tar(1) archive compressed with bzip2(1)
.tar.gztar(1) archive compressed with gzip(1)
.taztar(1) archive compressed with compress(1)
.tcltcl source code
.texTeX or LaTeX source
.texiequivalent to .texinfo
.texinfoTexinfo documentation source
.texttext file
.tfmTeX font metric file
.tgztar archive compressed with gzip(1)
.tifpoor man’s .tiff
.tiffTagged Image File Format
.tktcl/tk script
.tmptemporary file
.tmpltemplate files
.txtequivalent to .text
.uuequivalent to .uue
.uuebinary file encoded with uuencode(1)
.vfTeX virtual font file
.vplTeX virtual property list file
.wSilvio Levi’s CWEB
.wavwave sound file
.webDonald Knuth’s WEB
.wmlSource file for Web Meta Language
.xbmX11 bitmap source
.xcfGIMP graphic
.xmleXtended Markup Language file
.xpmX11 pixmap source
.xsPerl xsub file produced by h2xs
.xslXSL stylesheet
.yyacc(1) or bison(1) (parser generator) files
.zFile compressed using pack(1) (or an old gzip(1))
.zipzip(1) archive
.zoozoo(1) archive
~Emacs or patch(1) backup file
rcstartup (‘run control’) file, e.g., .newsrc


General UNIX conventions.


This list is not exhaustive.


file(1), make(1)


This page is part of release 3.44 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at

Linux SUFFIXES (7) 2000-11-16
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