Manual Reference Pages  - SENDTO (P)

PROLOG

This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer’s Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

CONTENTS

Name
Synopsis
Description
Return Value
Errors
Examples
Application Usage
Rationale
Future Directions
See Also
Copyright

NAME

sendto - send a message on a socket

SYNOPSIS

#include <sys/socket.h>

ssize_t sendto(int socket, const void *message, size_t length,
int
flags, const struct sockaddr *dest_addr,
socklen_t
dest_len);

DESCRIPTION

The sendto() function shall send a message through a connection-mode or connectionless-mode socket. If the socket is connectionless-mode, the message shall be sent to the address specified by dest_addr. If the socket is connection-mode, dest_addr shall be ignored.

The sendto() function takes the following arguments:
socket Specifies the socket file descriptor.
message Points to a buffer containing the message to be sent.
length Specifies the size of the message in bytes.
flags Specifies the type of message transmission. Values of this argument are formed by logically OR’ing zero or more of the following flags:
MSG_EOR Terminates a record (if supported by the protocol).
MSG_OOB Sends out-of-band data on sockets that support out-of-band data. The significance and semantics of out-of-band data are protocol-specific.

dest_addr
  Points to a sockaddr structure containing the destination address. The length and format of the address depend on the address family of the socket.
dest_len
  Specifies the length of the sockaddr structure pointed to by the dest_addr argument.

If the socket protocol supports broadcast and the specified address is a broadcast address for the socket protocol, sendto() shall fail if the SO_BROADCAST option is not set for the socket.

The dest_addr argument specifies the address of the target. The length argument specifies the length of the message.

Successful completion of a call to sendto() does not guarantee delivery of the message. A return value of -1 indicates only locally-detected errors.

If space is not available at the sending socket to hold the message to be transmitted and the socket file descriptor does not have O_NONBLOCK set, sendto() shall block until space is available. If space is not available at the sending socket to hold the message to be transmitted and the socket file descriptor does have O_NONBLOCK set, sendto() shall fail.

The socket in use may require the process to have appropriate privileges to use the sendto() function.

RETURN VALUE

Upon successful completion, sendto() shall return the number of bytes sent. Otherwise, -1 shall be returned and errno set to indicate the error.

ERRORS

The sendto() function shall fail if:
EAFNOSUPPORT
  Addresses in the specified address family cannot be used with this socket.
EAGAIN or EWOULDBLOCK
  The socket’s file descriptor is marked O_NONBLOCK and the requested operation would block.
EBADF The socket argument is not a valid file descriptor.
ECONNRESET
  A connection was forcibly closed by a peer.
EINTR A signal interrupted sendto() before any data was transmitted.
EMSGSIZE
  The message is too large to be sent all at once, as the socket requires.
ENOTCONN
  The socket is connection-mode but is not connected.
ENOTSOCK
  The socket argument does not refer to a socket.
EOPNOTSUPP
  The socket argument is associated with a socket that does not support one or more of the values set in flags.
EPIPE The socket is shut down for writing, or the socket is connection-mode and is no longer connected. In the latter case, and if the socket is of type SOCK_STREAM, the SIGPIPE signal is generated to the calling thread.

If the address family of the socket is AF_UNIX, then sendto() shall fail if:
EIO An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.
ELOOP A loop exists in symbolic links encountered during resolution of the pathname in the socket address.
ENAMETOOLONG
  A component of a pathname exceeded {NAME_MAX} characters, or an entire pathname exceeded {PATH_MAX} characters.
ENOENT A component of the pathname does not name an existing file or the pathname is an empty string.
ENOTDIR A component of the path prefix of the pathname in the socket address is not a directory.

The sendto() function may fail if:
EACCES Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix; or write access to the named socket is denied.
EDESTADDRREQ
  The socket is not connection-mode and does not have its peer address set, and no destination address was specified.
EHOSTUNREACH
  The destination host cannot be reached (probably because the host is down or a remote router cannot reach it).
EINVAL The dest_len argument is not a valid length for the address family.
EIO An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.
EISCONN A destination address was specified and the socket is already connected. This error may or may not be returned for connection mode sockets.
ENETDOWN
  The local network interface used to reach the destination is down.
ENETUNREACH
  No route to the network is present.
ENOBUFS Insufficient resources were available in the system to perform the operation.
ENOMEM Insufficient memory was available to fulfill the request.

If the address family of the socket is AF_UNIX, then sendto() may fail if:
ELOOP More than {SYMLOOP_MAX} symbolic links were encountered during resolution of the pathname in the socket address.
ENAMETOOLONG
  Pathname resolution of a symbolic link produced an intermediate result whose length exceeds {PATH_MAX}.

The following sections are informative.

EXAMPLES

None.

APPLICATION USAGE

The select() and poll() functions can be used to determine when it is possible to send more data.

RATIONALE

None.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

None.

SEE ALSO

getsockopt() , poll() , recv() , recvfrom() , recvmsg() , select() , send() , sendmsg() , setsockopt() , shutdown() , socket() , the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, <sys/socket.h>

COPYRIGHT

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .


IEEE/The Open Group SENDTO (P) 2003
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