mysqld_safe - MySQL server startup script
mysqld_safe is the recommended way to start a mysqld server on Unix. mysqld_safe adds some safety features such as restarting the server when an error occurs and logging runtime information to an error log file. A description of error logging is given later in this section.
mysqld_safe tries to start an executable named mysqld. To override the default behavior and specify explicitly the name of the server you want to run, specify a --mysqld or --mysqld-version option to mysqld_safe. You can also use --ledir to indicate the directory where mysqld_safe should look for the server.
Many of the options to mysqld_safe are the same as the options to mysqld. See Section 5.1.3, Server Command Options.
Options unknown to mysqld_safe are passed to mysqld if they are specified on the command line, but ignored if they are specified in the [mysqld_safe] group of an option file. See Section 126.96.36.199, Using Option Files.
mysqld_safe reads all options from the [mysqld], [server], and [mysqld_safe] sections in option files. For example, if you specify a [mysqld] section like this, mysqld_safe will find and use the --log-error option:
For backward compatibility, mysqld_safe also reads [safe_mysqld] sections, although you should rename such sections to [mysqld_safe] in MySQL 5.5 installations.
mysqld_safe supports the following options. It also reads option files and supports the options for processing them described at Section 188.8.131.52, Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling.
Display a help message and exit.
The path to the MySQL installation directory.
The size of the core file that mysqld should be able to create. The option value is passed to ulimit -c.
The path to the data directory.
The name of an option file to be read in addition to the usual option files. This must be the first option on the command line if it is used. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, the server will exit with an error.
The name of an option file to be read instead of the usual option files. This must be the first option on the command line if it is used.
If mysqld_safe cannot find the server, use this option to indicate the path name to the directory where the server is located.
Write the error log to the given file. See Section 5.2.2, The Error Log.
The name of the library to use for memory allocation instead of the system malloc() library. Any library can be used by specifying its path name, but there is a shortcut form to enable use of the tcmalloc library that is shipped with binary MySQL distributions for Linux in MySQL 5.5.
The --malloc-lib option works by modifying the LD_PRELOAD environment value to affect dynamic linking to enable the loader to find the memory-allocation library when mysqld runs:
o If the option is not given, or is given without a value (--malloc-lib=), LD_PRELOAD is not modified and no attempt is made to use tcmalloc.
o If the option is given as --malloc-lib=tcmalloc, mysqld_safe looks for a tcmalloc library in /usr/lib and then in the MySQL pkglibdir location (for example, /usr/local/mysql/lib or whatever is appropriate). If tmalloc is found, its path name is added to the beginning of the LD_PRELOAD value for mysqld. If tcmalloc is not found, mysqld_safe aborts with an error.
o If the option is given as --malloc-lib=/path/to/some/library, that full path is added to the beginning of the LD_PRELOAD value. If the full path points to a nonexistent or unreadable file, mysqld_safe aborts with an error.
o For cases where mysqld_safe adds a path name to LD_PRELOAD, it adds the path to the beginning of any existing value the variable already has.
Linux users can use the libtcmalloc_minimal.so included in binary packages by adding these lines to the my.cnf file:
Those lines also suffice for users on any platform who have installed a tcmalloc package in /usr/lib. To use a specific tcmalloc library, specify its full path name. Example:
The name of the server program (in the ledir directory) that you want to start. This option is needed if you use the MySQL binary distribution but have the data directory outside of the binary distribution. If mysqld_safe cannot find the server, use the --ledir option to indicate the path name to the directory where the server is located.
This option is similar to the --mysqld option, but you specify only the suffix for the server program name. The basename is assumed to be mysqld. For example, if you use --mysqld-version=debug, mysqld_safe starts the mysqld-debug program in the ledir directory. If the argument to --mysqld-version is empty, mysqld_safe uses mysqld in the ledir directory.
Use the nice program to set the servers scheduling priority to the given value.
Do not read any option files. This must be the first option on the command line if it is used.
The number of files that mysqld should be able to open. The option value is passed to ulimit -n. Note that you need to start mysqld_safe as root for this to work properly!
The path name of the process ID file.
The path name of the plugin directory. This option was added in MySQL 5.5.3.
The port number that the server should use when listening for TCP/IP connections. The port number must be 1024 or higher unless the server is started by the root system user.
Do not try to kill stray mysqld processes at startup. This option works only on Linux.
The Unix socket file that the server should use when listening for local connections.
o --syslog, --skip-syslog
--syslog causes error messages to be sent to syslog on systems that support the logger program. --skip-syslog suppresses the use of syslog; messages are written to an error log file.
When syslog is used, the daemon.err syslog priority/facility is used for all log messages.
For logging to syslog, messages from mysqld_safe and mysqld are written with a tag of mysqld_safe and mysqld, respectively. To specify a suffix for the tag, use --syslog-tag=tag, which modifies the tags to be mysqld_safe-tag and mysqld-tag.
Set the TZ time zone environment variable to the given option value. Consult your operating system documentation for legal time zone specification formats.
Run the mysqld server as the user having the name user_name or the numeric user ID user_id. (User in this context refers to a system login account, not a MySQL user listed in the grant tables.)
If you execute mysqld_safe with the --defaults-file or --defaults-extra-file option to name an option file, the option must be the first one given on the command line or the option file will not be used. For example, this command will not use the named option file:
mysql> mysqld_safe --port=port_num --defaults-file=file_name
Instead, use the following command:
mysql> mysqld_safe --defaults-file=file_name --port=port_num
The mysqld_safe script is written so that it normally can start a server that was installed from either a source or a binary distribution of MySQL, even though these types of distributions typically install the server in slightly different locations. (See Section 2.1.5, Installation Layouts.) mysqld_safe expects one of the following conditions to be true:
o The server and databases can be found relative to the working directory (the directory from which mysqld_safe is invoked). For binary distributions, mysqld_safe looks under its working directory for bin and data directories. For source distributions, it looks for libexec and var directories. This condition should be met if you execute mysqld_safe from your MySQL installation directory (for example, /usr/local/mysql for a binary distribution).
o If the server and databases cannot be found relative to the working directory, mysqld_safe attempts to locate them by absolute path names. Typical locations are /usr/local/libexec and /usr/local/var. The actual locations are determined from the values configured into the distribution at the time it was built. They should be correct if MySQL is installed in the location specified at configuration time.
Because mysqld_safe tries to find the server and databases relative to its own working directory, you can install a binary distribution of MySQL anywhere, as long as you run mysqld_safe from the MySQL installation directory:
shell> cd mysql_installation_directory shell> bin/mysqld_safe &
If mysqld_safe fails, even when invoked from the MySQL installation directory, you can specify the --ledir and --datadir options to indicate the directories in which the server and databases are located on your system.
Beginning with MySQL 5.5.21, mysqld_safe tries to use the sleep and date system utilities to determine how many times it has attempted to start this second, andif these are present and this is greater than 5 timesis forced to wait 1 full second before starting again. This is intended to prevent excessive CPU usage in the event of repeated failures. (Bug #11761530, Bug #54035)
When you use mysqld_safe to start mysqld, mysqld_safe arranges for error (and notice) messages from itself and from mysqld to go to the same destination.
There are several mysqld_safe options for controlling the destination of these messages:
o --syslog: Write error messages to syslog on systems that support the logger program.
o --skip-syslog: Do not write error messages to syslog. Messages are written to the default error log file (host_name.err in the data directory), or to a named file if the --log-error option is given.
o --log-error=file_name: Write error messages to the named error file.
If none of these options is given, the default is --skip-syslog.
If --syslog and --log-error are both given, a warning is issued and --log-error takes precedence.
When mysqld_safe writes a message, notices go to the logging destination (syslog or the error log file) and stdout. Errors go to the logging destination and stderr.
Normally, you should not edit the mysqld_safe script. Instead, configure mysqld_safe by using command-line options or options in the [mysqld_safe] section of a my.cnf option file. In rare cases, it might be necessary to edit mysqld_safe to get it to start the server properly. However, if you do this, your modified version of mysqld_safe might be overwritten if you upgrade MySQL in the future, so you should make a copy of your edited version that you can reinstall.
Copyright © 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, is prohibited.
The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. If you find any errors, please report them to us in writing.
If this software or related documentation is delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing it on behalf of the U.S. Government, the following notice is applicable:
U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS Programs, software, databases, and related documentation and technical data delivered to U.S. Government customers are "commercial computer software" or "commercial technical data" pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation and agency-specific supplemental regulations. As such, the use, duplication, disclosure, modification, and adaptation shall be subject to the restrictions and license terms set forth in the applicable Government contract, and, to the extent applicable by the terms of the Government contract, the additional rights set forth in FAR 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software License (December 2007). Oracle USA, Inc., 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065.
This software is developed for general use in a variety of information management applications. It is not developed or intended for use in any inherently dangerous applications, including applications which may create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software in dangerous applications, then you shall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to ensure the safe use of this software. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates disclaim any liability for any damages caused by use of this software in dangerous applications.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. MySQL is a trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates, and shall not be used without Oracles express written authorization. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.
This software and documentation may provide access to or information on content, products, and services from third parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for and expressly disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party content, products, and services. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates will not be responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to your access to or use of third-party content, products, or services.
This document in any form, software or printed matter, contains proprietary information that is the exclusive property of Oracle. Your access to and use of this material is subject to the terms and conditions of your Oracle Software License and Service Agreement, which has been executed and with which you agree to comply. This document and information contained herein may not be disclosed, copied, reproduced, or distributed to anyone outside Oracle without prior written consent of Oracle or as specifically provided below. This document is not part of your license agreement nor can it be incorporated into any contractual agreement with Oracle or its subsidiaries or affiliates.
This documentation is NOT distributed under a GPL license. Use of this documentation is subject to the following terms:
You may create a printed copy of this documentation solely for your own personal use. Conversion to other formats is allowed as long as the actual content is not altered or edited in any way. You shall not publish or distribute this documentation in any form or on any media, except if you distribute the documentation in a manner similar to how Oracle disseminates it (that is, electronically for download on a Web site with the software) or on a CD-ROM or similar medium, provided however that the documentation is disseminated together with the software on the same medium. Any other use, such as any dissemination of printed copies or use of this documentation, in whole or in part, in another publication, requires the prior written consent from an authorized representative of Oracle. Oracle and/or its affiliates reserve any and all rights to this documentation not expressly granted above.
For more information on the terms of this license, or for details on how the MySQL documentation is built and produced, please visit [blue]MySQL Contact & Questions.
For additional licensing information, including licenses for third-party libraries used by MySQL products, see Preface and Legal Notices.
For help with using MySQL, please visit either the [blue]MySQL Forums or [blue]MySQL Mailing Lists where you can discuss your issues with other MySQL users.
For additional documentation on MySQL products, including translations of the documentation into other languages, and downloadable versions in variety of formats, including HTML and PDF formats, see the [blue]MySQL Documentation Library.
For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which may already be installed locally and which is also available online at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.
Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).
|MySQL 5.5||BMYSQLD_SAFER (1)||03/22/2013|