Manual Reference Pages  - GROFF_CHAR (7)

NAME

groff_char - groff glyph names

CONTENTS

Description
Reference

DESCRIPTION

This manual page lists the standard groff glyph names and the default input mapping,  latin1. The glyphs in this document look different depending on which output device was chosen (with option -T for the man(1) program or the roff formatter). Glyphs not available for the device that is being used to print or view this manual page are marked with ‘(N/A)’.

In the actual version, groff provides only  8-bit characters for direct input and named entities for further glyphs. On ASCII platforms, input character codes in the range 0 to 127 (decimal) represent the usual  7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted as the corresponding characters in the  latin1 ( ISO-8859-1) code set by default. This mapping is contained in the file latin1.tmac and can be changed by loading a different input encoding. Note that some of the input characters are reserved by groff, either for internal use or for special input purposes. On EBCDIC platforms, only code page cp1047 is supported (which contains the same characters as  latin1; the input encoding file is called cp1047.tmac). Again, some input characters are reserved for internal and special purposes.

All roff systems provide the concept of named glyphs. In traditional roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff also provides support for longer names. It is strongly suggested that only named glyphs are used for all character representations outside of the printable  7-bit ASCII range.

Some of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1) also produce single glyphs; these exist for historical reasons or are printable versions of syntactical characters. They include ‘\\’, ‘\'’, ‘\‘’, ‘\-’, ‘\.’, and ‘\e’; see groff(7).

In groff, all of these different types of characters and glyphs can be tested positively with the ‘.if c’ conditional.

REFERENCE

In this section, the glyphs in groff are specified in tabular form. The meaning of the columns is as follows.
Output
  shows how the glyph is printed for the current device; although this can have quite a different shape on other devices, it always represents the same glyph.
Input name
  specifies how the glyph is input either directly by a key on the keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.
Input code
  applies to glyphs which can be input with a single character, and gives the ISO  latin1 decimal code of that input character. Note that this code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Unicode characters, including  7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127.
PostScript name
  gives the usual PostScript name of the glyph.
Unicode decomposed
  is the glyph name used in composite glyph names.

    7-bit Character Codes 32-126

These are the basic glyphs having 7-bit ASCII code values assigned. They are identical to the printable characters of the character standards  ISO-8859-1 ( latin1) and Unicode (range Basic Latin). The glyph names used in composite glyph names are ‘u0020’ up to ‘u007E’.

Note that input characters in the range  0-31 and character 127 are not printable characters. Most of them are invalid input characters for groff anyway, and the valid ones have special meaning. For EBCDIC, the printable characters are in the range  66-255.
48-57 Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).
65-90 Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).
97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).
Most of the remaining characters not in the just described ranges print as themselves; the only exceptions are the following characters:
` the ISO  latin1 ‘Grave Accent’ (code 96) prints as ‘, a left single quotation mark; the original character can be obtained with ‘\‘’.
' the ISO  latin1 ‘Apostrophe’ (code 39) prints as ’, a right single quotation mark; the original character can be obtained with ‘\(aq’.
- the ISO  latin1 ‘Hyphen, Minus Sign’ (code 45) prints as a hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with ‘\-’.
~ the ISO  latin1 ‘Tilde’ (code 126) is reduced in size to be usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with ‘\(ti’.
^ the ISO  latin1 ‘Circumflex Accent’ (code 94) is reduced in size to be usable as a diacritic; a larger glyph can be obtained with ‘\(ha’.

Output Input Input PostScript Unicode Notes
name code name decomposed

[char33]
[char33] 33 exclam (N/A) exclam u0021

[char34]
[char34] 34 quotedbl (N/A) quotedbl u0022

[char35]
[char35] 35 numbersign (N/A) numbersign u0023

[char36]
[char36] 36 dollar (N/A) dollar u0024

[char37]
[char37] 37 percent (N/A) percent u0025

[char38]
[char38] 38 ampersand (N/A) ampersand u0026

[char39]
[char39] 39 quoteright (N/A) quoteright u0027

[char40]
[char40] 40 parenleft (N/A) parenleft u0028

[char41]
[char41] 41 parenright (N/A) parenright u0029

[char42]
[char42] 42 asterisk (N/A) asterisk u002A

[char43]
[char43] 43 plus (N/A) plus u002B

[char44]
[char44] 44 comma (N/A) comma u002C

[char45]
[char45] 45 hyphen (N/A) hyphen u2010

[char46]
[char46] 46 period (N/A) period u002E

[char47]
[char47] 47 slash (N/A) slash u002F

[char58]
[char58] 58 colon (N/A) colon u003A

[char59]
[char59] 59 semicolon (N/A) semicolon u003B

[char60]
[char60] 60 less (N/A) less u003C

[char61]
[char61] 61 equal (N/A) equal u003D

[char62]
[char62] 62 greater (N/A) greater u003E

[char63]
[char63] 63 question (N/A) question u003F

[char64]
[char64] 64 at (N/A) at u0040

[char91]
[char91] 91 bracketleft (N/A) bracketleft u005B

[char92]
[char92] 92 backslash (N/A) backslash u005C

[char93]
[char93] 93 bracketright (N/A) bracketright u005D

[char94]
[char94] 94 circumflex (N/A) circumflex u005E circumflex accent

circumflex accent

[char95]
[char95] 95 underscore (N/A) underscore u005F

[char96]
[char96] 96 quoteleft (N/A) quoteleft u0060

[char123]
[char123] 123 braceleft (N/A) braceleft u007B

[char124]
[char124] 124 bar (N/A) bar u007C

[char125]
[char125] 125 braceright (N/A) braceright u007D

[char126]
[char126] 126 tilde (N/A) tilde u007E tilde accent

tilde accent

    8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255

They are interpreted as printable characters according to the latin1 (ISO-8859-1) code set, being identical to the Unicode range Latin-1 Supplement.

Input characters in range 128-159 (on non-EBCDIC hosts) are not printable characters.
160 the ISO  latin1 no-break space is mapped to ‘\~’, the stretchable space character.
173 the soft hyphen control character. groff never uses this character for output (thus it is omitted in the table below); the input character 173 is mapped onto ‘\%’.
The remaining ranges ( 161-172,  174-255) are printable characters that print as themselves. Although they can be specified directly with the keyboard on systems with a  latin1 code page, it is better to use their glyph names; see next section.

Output Input Input PostScript Unicode Notes
name code name decomposed

[char161]
[char161] 161 exclamdown (N/A) exclamdown u00A1 inverted exclamation mark

inverted exclamation mark

[char162]
[char162] 162 cent (N/A) cent u00A2

[char163]
[char163] 163 sterling (N/A) sterling u00A3

[char164]
[char164] 164 currency (N/A) currency u00A4

[char165]
[char165] 165 yen (N/A) yen u00A5

[char166]
[char166] 166 brokenbar (N/A) brokenbar u00A6

[char167]
[char167] 167 section (N/A) section u00A7

[char168]
[char168] 168 dieresis (N/A) dieresis u00A8

[char169]
[char169] 169 copyright (N/A) copyright u00A9

[char170]
[char170] 170 ordfeminine (N/A) ordfeminine u00AA

[char171]
[char171] 171 guillemotleft (N/A) guillemotleft u00AB

[char172]
[char172] 172 logicalnot (N/A) logicalnot u00AC

[char174]
[char174] 174 registered (N/A) registered u00AE

[char175]
[char175] 175 macron (N/A) macron u00AF

[char176]
[char176] 176 degree (N/A) degree u00B0

[char177]
[char177] 177 plusminus (N/A) plusminus u00B1

[char178]
[char178] 178 twosuperior (N/A) twosuperior u00B2

[char179]
[char179] 179 threesuperior (N/A) threesuperior u00B3

[char180]
[char180] 180 acute (N/A) acute u00B4 acute accent

acute accent

[char181]
[char181] 181 mu (N/A) mu u00B5 micro sign

micro sign

[char182]
[char182] 182 paragraph (N/A) paragraph u00B6

[char183]
[char183] 183 periodcentered (N/A) periodcentered u00B7

[char184]
[char184] 184 cedilla (N/A) cedilla u00B8

[char185]
[char185] 185 onesuperior (N/A) onesuperior u00B9

[char186]
[char186] 186 ordmasculine (N/A) ordmasculine u00BA

[char187]
[char187] 187 guillemotright (N/A) guillemotright u00BB

[char188]
[char188] 188 onequarter (N/A) onequarter u00BC

[char189]
[char189] 189 onehalf (N/A) onehalf u00BD

[char190]
[char190] 190 threequarters (N/A) threequarters u00BE

[char191]
[char191] 191 questiondown (N/A) questiondown u00BF

[char192]
[char192] 192 Agrave (N/A) Agrave u0041_0300

[char193]
[char193] 193 Aacute (N/A) Aacute u0041_0301

[char194]
[char194] 194 Acircumflex (N/A) Acircumflex u0041_0302

[char195]
[char195] 195 Atilde (N/A) Atilde u0041_0303

[char196]
[char196] 196 Adieresis (N/A) Adieresis u0041_0308

[char197]
[char197] 197 Aring (N/A) Aring u0041_030A

[char198]
[char198] 198 AE (N/A) AE u00C6

[char199]
[char199] 199 Ccedilla (N/A) Ccedilla u0043_0327

[char200]
[char200] 200 Egrave (N/A) Egrave u0045_0300

[char201]
[char201] 201 Eacute (N/A) Eacute u0045_0301

[char202]
[char202] 202 Ecircumflex (N/A) Ecircumflex u0045_0302

[char203]
[char203] 203 Edieresis (N/A) Edieresis u0045_0308

[char204]
[char204] 204 Igrave (N/A) Igrave u0049_0300

[char205]
[char205] 205 Iacute (N/A) Iacute u0049_0301

[char206]
[char206] 206 Icircumflex (N/A) Icircumflex u0049_0302

[char207]
[char207] 207 Idieresis (N/A) Idieresis u0049_0308

[char208]
[char208] 208 Eth (N/A) Eth u00D0

[char209]
[char209] 209 Ntilde (N/A) Ntilde u004E_0303

[char210]
[char210] 210 Ograve (N/A) Ograve u004F_0300

[char211]
[char211] 211 Oacute (N/A) Oacute u004F_0301

[char212]
[char212] 212 Ocircumflex (N/A) Ocircumflex u004F_0302

[char213]
[char213] 213 Otilde (N/A) Otilde u004F_0303

[char214]
[char214] 214 Odieresis (N/A) Odieresis u004F_0308

[char215]
[char215] 215 multiply (N/A) multiply u00D7

[char216]
[char216] 216 Oslash (N/A) Oslash u00D8

[char217]
[char217] 217 Ugrave (N/A) Ugrave u0055_0300

[char218]
[char218] 218 Uacute (N/A) Uacute u0055_0301

[char219]
[char219] 219 Ucircumflex (N/A) Ucircumflex u0055_0302

[char220]
[char220] 220 Udieresis (N/A) Udieresis u0055_0308

[char221]
[char221] 221 Yacute (N/A) Yacute u0059_0301

[char222]
[char222] 222 Thorn (N/A) Thorn u00DE

[char223]
[char223] 223 germandbls (N/A) germandbls u00DF

[char224]
[char224] 224 agrave (N/A) agrave u0061_0300

[char225]
[char225] 225 aacute (N/A) aacute u0061_0301

[char226]
[char226] 226 acircumflex (N/A) acircumflex u0061_0302

[char227]
[char227] 227 atilde (N/A) atilde u0061_0303

[char228]
[char228] 228 adieresis (N/A) adieresis u0061_0308

[char229]
[char229] 229 aring (N/A) aring u0061_030A

[char230]
[char230] 230 ae (N/A) ae u00E6

[char231]
[char231] 231 ccedilla (N/A) ccedilla u0063_0327

[char232]
[char232] 232 egrave (N/A) egrave u0065_0300

[char233]
[char233] 233 eacute (N/A) eacute u0065_0301

[char234]
[char234] 234 ecircumflex (N/A) ecircumflex u0065_0302

[char235]
[char235] 235 edieresis (N/A) edieresis u0065_0308

[char236]
[char236] 236 igrave (N/A) igrave u0069_0300

[char237]
[char237] 237 iacute (N/A) iacute u0069_0301

[char238]
[char238] 238 icircumflex (N/A) icircumflex u0069_0302

[char239]
[char239] 239 idieresis (N/A) idieresis u0069_0308

[char240]
[char240] 240 eth (N/A) eth u00F0

[char241]
[char241] 241 ntilde (N/A) ntilde u006E_0303

[char242]
[char242] 242 ograve (N/A) ograve u006F_0300

[char243]
[char243] 243 oacute (N/A) oacute u006F_0301

[char244]
[char244] 244 ocircumflex (N/A) ocircumflex u006F_0302

[char245]
[char245] 245 otilde (N/A) otilde u006F_0303

[char246]
[char246] 246 odieresis (N/A) odieresis u006F_0308

[char247]
[char247] 247 divide (N/A) divide u00F7

[char248]
[char248] 248 oslash (N/A) oslash u00F8

[char249]
[char249] 249 ugrave (N/A) ugrave u0075_0300

[char250]
[char250] 250 uacute (N/A) uacute u0075_0301

[char251]
[char251] 251 ucircumflex (N/A) ucircumflex u0075_0302

[char252]
[char252] 252 udieresis (N/A) udieresis u0075_0308

[char253]
[char253] 253 yacute (N/A) yacute u0079_0301

[char254]
[char254] 254 thorn (N/A) thorn u00FE

[char255]
[char255] 255 ydieresis (N/A) ydieresis u0079_0308

    Named Glyphs

Glyph names can be embedded into the document text by using escape sequences. groff(7) describes how these escape sequences look. Glyph names can consist of quite arbitrary characters from the ASCII or  latin1 code set, not only alphanumeric characters. Here some examples:
\(ch A glyph having the 2-character name ch.
\[char_name]
  A glyph having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3, ...). Note that ‘c’ is not the same as ‘\[c]’ (c a single character): The latter is internally mapped to glyph name ‘\c’. By default, groff defines a single glyph name starting with a backslash, namely  ‘\-’, which can be either accessed as ‘\-’ or ‘\[-]’.
\[base_glyph composite_1 composite_2 ...]
  A composite glyph; see below for a more detailed description.
In groff, each  8-bit input character can also referred to by the construct ‘\[charn]’ where n is the decimal code of the character, a number between 0 and 255 without leading zeros (those entities are not glyph names). They are normally mapped onto glyphs using the .trin request. Another special convention is the handling of glyphs with names directly derived from a Unicode code point; this is discussed below. Moreover, new glyph names can be created by the .char request; see groff(7).
In the following, a plus sign in the ‘Notes’ column indicates that this particular glyph name appears in the PS version of the original troff documentation, CSTR 54.
Entries marked with ‘***’ denote glyphs for mathematical purposes (mainly used for DVI output). Normally, such glyphs have metrics which make them unusable in normal text.
Output Input PostScript Unicode Notes
name name decomposed
\(-D
\(-D Eth (N/A) Eth u00D0 uppercase eth

uppercase eth

\(Sd
\(Sd eth (N/A) eth u00F0 lowercase eth

lowercase eth

\(TP
\(TP Thorn (N/A) Thorn u00DE uppercase thorn

uppercase thorn

\(Tp
\(Tp thorn (N/A) thorn u00FE lowercase thorn

lowercase thorn

\(ss
\(ss germandbls (N/A) germandbls u00DF German sharp s

German sharp s

Ligatures and Other Latin Glyphs
\(ff
ff ff (N/A) ff u0066_0066 ff ligature +

ff ligature +

\(fi
fi fi (N/A) fi u0066_0069 fi ligature +

fi ligature +

\(fl
fl fl (N/A) fl u0066_006C fl ligature +

fl ligature +

\(Fi
ffi ffi (N/A) ffi u0066_0066_0069 ffi ligature +

ffi ligature +

\(Fl
ffl ffl (N/A) ffl u0066_0066_006C ffl ligature +

ffl ligature +

\(/L
\(/L Lslash (N/A) Lslash u0141 (Polish)

(Polish)

\(/l
\(/l lslash (N/A) lslash u0142 (Polish)

(Polish)

\(/O
\(/O Oslash (N/A) Oslash u00D8 (Scandinavic)

(Scandinavic)

\(/o
\(/o oslash (N/A) oslash u00F8 (Scandinavic)

(Scandinavic)

\(AE
\(AE AE (N/A) AE u00C6

\(ae
\(ae ae (N/A) ae u00E6

\(OE
\(OE OE (N/A) OE u0152

\(oe
\(oe oe (N/A) oe u0153

\(IJ
\(IJ IJ (N/A) IJ u0132 (Dutch)

(Dutch)

\(ij
\(ij ij (N/A) ij u0133 (Dutch)

(Dutch)

\(.i
\(.i dotlessi (N/A) dotlessi u0131 (Turkish)

(Turkish)

\(.j
\(.j dotlessj (N/A) dotlessj --- j without a dot

j without a dot

Accented Characters
\(’A
\(’A Aacute (N/A) Aacute u0041_0301

\(’C
\(’C Cacute (N/A) Cacute u0043_0301

\(’E
\(’E Eacute (N/A) Eacute u0045_0301

\(’I
\(’I Iacute (N/A) Iacute u0049_0301

\(’O
\(’O Oacute (N/A) Oacute u004F_0301

\(’U
\(’U Uacute (N/A) Uacute u0055_0301

\(’Y
\(’Y Yacute (N/A) Yacute u0059_0301

\(’a
\(’a aacute (N/A) aacute u0061_0301

\(’c
\(’c cacute (N/A) cacute u0063_0301

\(’e
\(’e eacute (N/A) eacute u0065_0301

\(’i
\(’i iacute (N/A) iacute u0069_0301

\(’o
\(’o oacute (N/A) oacute u006F_0301

\(’u
\(’u uacute (N/A) uacute u0075_0301

\(’y
\(’y yacute (N/A) yacute u0079_0301

\(:A
\(:A Adieresis (N/A) Adieresis u0041_0308 A with umlaut

A with umlaut

\(:E
\(:E Edieresis (N/A) Edieresis u0045_0308

\(:I
\(:I Idieresis (N/A) Idieresis u0049_0308

\(:O
\(:O Odieresis (N/A) Odieresis u004F_0308

\(:U
\(:U Udieresis (N/A) Udieresis u0055_0308

\(:Y
\(:Y Ydieresis (N/A) Ydieresis u0059_0308

\(:a
\(:a adieresis (N/A) adieresis u0061_0308

\(:e
\(:e edieresis (N/A) edieresis u0065_0308

\(:i
\(:i idieresis (N/A) idieresis u0069_0308

\(:o
\(:o odieresis (N/A) odieresis u006F_0308

\(:u
\(:u udieresis (N/A) udieresis u0075_0308

\(:y
\(:y ydieresis (N/A) ydieresis u0079_0308

\(^A
\(^A Acircumflex (N/A) Acircumflex u0041_0302

\(^E
\(^E Ecircumflex (N/A) Ecircumflex u0045_0302

\(^I
\(^I Icircumflex (N/A) Icircumflex u0049_0302

\(^O
\(^O Ocircumflex (N/A) Ocircumflex u004F_0302

\(^U
\(^U Ucircumflex (N/A) Ucircumflex u0055_0302

\(^a
\(^a acircumflex (N/A) acircumflex u0061_0302

\(^e
\(^e ecircumflex (N/A) ecircumflex u0065_0302

\(^i
\(^i icircumflex (N/A) icircumflex u0069_0302

\(^o
\(^o ocircumflex (N/A) ocircumflex u006F_0302

\(^u
\(^u ucircumflex (N/A) ucircumflex u0075_0302

\(‘A
\(‘A Agrave (N/A) Agrave u0041_0300

\(‘E
\(‘E Egrave (N/A) Egrave u0045_0300

\(‘I
\(‘I Igrave (N/A) Igrave u0049_0300

\(‘O
\(‘O Ograve (N/A) Ograve u004F_0300

\(‘U
\(‘U Ugrave (N/A) Ugrave u0055_0300

\(‘a
\(‘a agrave (N/A) agrave u0061_0300

\(‘e
\(‘e egrave (N/A) egrave u0065_0300

\(‘i
\(‘i igrave (N/A) igrave u0069_0300

\(‘o
\(‘o ograve (N/A) ograve u006F_0300

\(‘u
\(‘u ugrave (N/A) ugrave u0075_0300

\(~A
\(~A Atilde (N/A) Atilde u0041_0303

\(~N
\(~N Ntilde (N/A) Ntilde u004E_0303

\(~O
\(~O Otilde (N/A) Otilde u004F_0303

\(~a
\(~a atilde (N/A) atilde u0061_0303

\(~n
\(~n ntilde (N/A) ntilde u006E_0303

\(~o
\(~o otilde (N/A) otilde u006F_0303

\(vS
\(vS Scaron (N/A) Scaron u0053_030C

\(vs
\(vs scaron (N/A) scaron u0073_030C

\(vZ
\(vZ Zcaron (N/A) Zcaron u005A_030C

\(vz
\(vz zcaron (N/A) zcaron u007A_030C

\(,C
\(,C Ccedilla (N/A) Ccedilla u0043_0327

\(,c
\(,c ccedilla (N/A) ccedilla u0063_0327

\(oA
\(oA Aring (N/A) Aring u0041_030A

\(oa
\(oa aring (N/A) aring u0061_030A

Accents
The composite request is used to map most of the accents to non-spacing glyph names; the values given in parentheses are the original (spacing) ones.
\k[acc] \(ah c \k[acc] ´ a
Output Input PostScript Unicode Notes
name name decomposed
\(a
\(a hungarumlaut (N/A) hungarumlaut u030B (u02DD)

(u02DD)

\(a-
\(a- macron (N/A) macron u0304 (u00AF)

\(a.
\(a. dotaccent (N/A) dotaccent u0307 (u02D9)

\(a^
\(a^ circumflex (N/A) circumflex u0302 (u005E)

\(aa
´ acute (N/A) acute u0301 (u00B4) +

+

\(ga
` grave (N/A) grave u0300 (u0060) +

+

\(ab
\(ab breve (N/A) breve u0306 (u02D8)

\(ac
\(ac cedilla (N/A) cedilla u0327 (u00B8)

\(ad
\(ad dieresis (N/A) dieresis u0308 (u00A8) umlaut

umlaut

\(ah
\(ah caron (N/A) caron u030C (u02C7) h\(’a\(vcek

h\(’a\(vcek

\(ao
\(ao ring (N/A) ring u030A (u02DA) circle

circle

\(a~
\(a~ tilde (N/A) tilde u0303 (u007E)

\(ho
\(ho ogonek (N/A) ogonek u0328 (u02DB) hook

hook

\(ha
\(ha asciicircum (N/A) asciicircum u005E (spacing)

(spacing)

\(ti
\(ti asciitilde (N/A) asciitilde u007E (spacing)

(spacing)

Quotes
\(Bq
\(Bq quotedblbase (N/A) quotedblbase u201E low double comma quote

low double comma quote

\(bq
\(bq quotesinglbase (N/A) quotesinglbase u201A low single comma quote

low single comma quote

\(lq
\(lq quotedblleft (N/A) quotedblleft u201C

\(rq
\(rq quotedblright (N/A) quotedblright u201D

\(oq
\(oq quoteleft (N/A) quoteleft u2018 single open quote

single open quote

\(cq
\(cq quoteright (N/A) quoteright u2019 single closing quote

single closing quote

\(aq
quotesingle (N/A) quotesingle u0027 apostrophe quote (ASCII 39)

apostrophe quote (ASCII 39)

\(dq
\(dq quotedbl (N/A) quotedbl u0022 double quote (ASCII 34)

double quote (ASCII 34)

\(Fo
\(Fo guillemotleft (N/A) guillemotleft u00AB

\(Fc
\(Fc guillemotright (N/A) guillemotright u00BB

\(fo
\(fo guilsinglleft (N/A) guilsinglleft u2039

\(fc
\(fc guilsinglright (N/A) guilsinglright u203A

Punctuation
\(r!
\(r! exclamdown (N/A) exclamdown u00A1

\(r?
\(r? questiondown (N/A) questiondown u00BF

\(em
— emdash (N/A) emdash u2014 +

+

\(en
- endash (N/A) endash u2013

\(hy
- hyphen (N/A) hyphen u2010 +

+

Brackets
The extensible bracket pieces are font-invariant glyphs. In classical troff only one glyph was available to vertically extend brackets, braces, and parentheses: ‘bv’. We map it rather arbitrarily to u23AA.
Note that not all devices contain extensible bracket pieces which can be piled up with ‘\b’ due to the restrictions of the escape’s piling algorithm. A general solution to build brackets out of pieces is the following macro:

  .\" Make a pile centered vertically 0.5em .\" above the baseline. .\" The first argument is placed at the top. .\" The pile is returned in string ‘pile’ .eo .de pile-make . nr pile-wd 0 . nr pile-ht 0 . ds pile-args . . nr pile-# \n[.$] . while \n[pile-#] \{\ . nr pile-wd (\n[pile-wd] >? \w’\$[\n[pile-#]]’) . nr pile-ht +(\n[rst] - \n[rsb]) . as pile-args \v’\n[rsb]u’\" . as pile-args \Z’\$[\n[pile-#]]’\" . as pile-args \v’-\n[rst]u’\" . nr pile-# -1 . \} . . ds pile \v’(-0.5m + (\n[pile-ht]u / 2u))’\" . as pile \*[pile-args]\" . as pile \v’((\n[pile-ht]u / 2u) + 0.5m)’\" . as pile \h’\n[pile-wd]u’\" .. .ec
Another complication is the fact that some glyphs which represent bracket pieces in original troff can be used for other mathematical symbols also, for example ‘lf’ and ‘rf’ which provide the ‘floor’ operator. Other devices (most notably for DVI output) don’t unify such glyphs. For this reason, the four glyphs ‘lf’, ‘rf’, ‘lc’, and ‘rc’ are not unified with similarly looking bracket pieces. In groff, only glyphs with long names are guaranteed to pile up correctly for all devices (provided those glyphs exist).

Output Input PostScript Unicode Notes
name name decomposed

\(lB
\(lB bracketleft (N/A) bracketleft u005B

\(rB
\(rB bracketright (N/A) bracketright u005D

\(lC
\(lC braceleft (N/A) braceleft u007B

\(rC
\(rC braceright (N/A) braceright u007D

\(la
\(la angleleft (N/A) angleleft u27E8 left angle bracket

left angle bracket

\(ra
\(ra angleright (N/A) angleright u27E9 right angle bracket

right angle bracket

\(bv
| braceex (N/A) braceex u23AA vertical extension *** +

vertical extension *** +

\[braceex]
[braceex] braceex (N/A) braceex u23AA

\[bracketlefttp]
[bracketlefttp] bracketlefttp (N/A) bracketlefttp u23A1

\[bracketleftbt]
[bracketleftbt] bracketleftbt (N/A) bracketleftbt u23A3

\[bracketleftex]
[bracketleftex] bracketleftex (N/A) bracketleftex u23A2

\[bracketrighttp]
[bracketrighttp] bracketrighttp (N/A) bracketrighttp u23A4

\[bracketrightbt]
[bracketrightbt] bracketrightbt (N/A) bracketrightbt u23A6

\[bracketrightex]
[bracketrightex] bracketrightex (N/A) bracketrightex u23A5

\(lt
( bracelefttp (N/A) bracelefttp u23A7 +

+

\[bracelefttp]
[bracelefttp] bracelefttp (N/A) bracelefttp u23A7

\(lk
| braceleftmid (N/A) braceleftmid u23A8 +

+

\[braceleftmid]
[braceleftmid] braceleftmid (N/A) braceleftmid u23A8

\(lb
( braceleftbt (N/A) braceleftbt u23A9 +

+

\[braceleftbt]
[braceleftbt] braceleftbt (N/A) braceleftbt u23A9

\[braceleftex]
[braceleftex] braceleftex (N/A) braceleftex u23AA

\(rt
) bracerighttp (N/A) bracerighttp u23AB +

+

\[bracerighttp]
[bracerighttp] bracerighttp (N/A) bracerighttp u23AB

\(rk
| bracerightmid (N/A) bracerightmid u23AC +

+

\[bracerightmid]
[bracerightmid] bracerightmid (N/A) bracerightmid u23AC

\(rb
) bracerightbt (N/A) bracerightbt u23AD +

+

\[bracerightbt]
[bracerightbt] bracerightbt (N/A) bracerightbt u23AD

\[bracerightex]
[bracerightex] bracerightex (N/A) bracerightex u23AA

\[parenlefttp]
[parenlefttp] parenlefttp (N/A) parenlefttp u239B

\[parenleftbt]
[parenleftbt] parenleftbt (N/A) parenleftbt u239D

\[parenleftex]
[parenleftex] parenleftex (N/A) parenleftex u239C

\[parenrighttp]
[parenrighttp] parenrighttp (N/A) parenrighttp u239E

\[parenrightbt]
[parenrightbt] parenrightbt (N/A) parenrightbt u23A0

\[parenrightex]
[parenrightex] parenrightex (N/A) parenrightex u239F

Arrows

\(<-
\(&lt;- arrowleft (N/A) arrowleft u2190 +

+

\(->
\(-&gt; arrowright (N/A) arrowright u2192 +

+

\(<>
\(&lt;> arrowboth (N/A) arrowboth u2194 (horizontal)

(horizontal)

\(da
v arrowdown (N/A) arrowdown u2193 +

+

\(ua
^ arrowup (N/A) arrowup u2191 +

+

\(va
\(va arrowupdn (N/A) arrowupdn u2195

\(lA
\(lA arrowdblleft (N/A) arrowdblleft u21D0

\(rA
\(rA arrowdblright (N/A) arrowdblright u21D2

\(hA
\(hA arrowdblboth (N/A) arrowdblboth u21D4 (horizontal)

(horizontal)

\(dA
\(dA arrowdbldown (N/A) arrowdbldown u21D3

\(uA
\(uA arrowdblup (N/A) arrowdblup u21D1

\(vA
\(vA uni21D5 (N/A) uni21D5 u21D5 vertical double-headed double arrow

vertical double-headed double arrow

\(an
\(an arrowhorizex (N/A) arrowhorizex u23AF horizontal arrow extension

horizontal arrow extension

Lines

The font-invariant glyphs ‘br’, ‘ul’, and ‘rn’ form corners; they can be used to build boxes. Note that both the PostScript and the Unicode-derived names of these three glyphs are just rough approximations.

‘rn’ also serves in classical troff as the horizontal extension of the square root sign.

‘ru’ is a font-invariant glyph, namely a rule of length 0.5m.

Output Input PostScript Unicode Notes
name name decomposed

\(ba
\(ba bar (N/A) bar u007C

\(br
| SF110000 (N/A) SF110000 u2502 box rule +

box rule +

\(ul
_ underscore (N/A) underscore u005F +

+

\(rn
overline (N/A) overline u203E use ‘\[radicalex]’ for continuation of square root +

use ‘\[radicalex]’ for continuation of square root +

\(ru
_ --- (N/A) --- --- baseline rule +

baseline rule +

\(bb
\(bb brokenbar (N/A) brokenbar u00A6

\(sl
/ slash (N/A) slash u002F +

+

\(rs
\(rs backslash (N/A) backslash u005C reverse solidus

reverse solidus

Text markers

\(ci
O circle (N/A) circle u25CB +

+

\(bu
o bullet (N/A) bullet u2022 +

+

\(dd
‡ daggerdbl (N/A) daggerdbl u2021 double dagger sign +

double dagger sign +

\(dg
† dagger (N/A) dagger u2020 +

+

\(lz
\(lz lozenge (N/A) lozenge u25CA

\(sq
[] uni25A1 (N/A) uni25A1 u25A1 white square +

white square +

\(ps
\(ps paragraph (N/A) paragraph u00B6

\(sc
§ section (N/A) section u00A7 +

+

\(lh
<= uni261C (N/A) uni261C u261C hand pointing left +

hand pointing left +

\(rh
=> a14 (N/A) a14 u261E hand pointing right +

hand pointing right +

\(at
\(at at (N/A) at u0040

\(sh
\(sh numbersign (N/A) numbersign u0023

\(CR
\(CR carriagereturn (N/A) carriagereturn u21B5

\(OK
\(OK a19 (N/A) a19 u2713 check mark, tick

check mark, tick

Legal Symbols

\(co
© copyright (N/A) copyright u00A9 +

+

\(rg
® registered (N/A) registered u00AE +

+

\(tm
® trademark (N/A) trademark u2122

\(bs
\(bs --- (N/A) --- --- AT&T Bell Labs logo (not used in groff) +

AT&T Bell Labs logo (not used in groff) +

Currency symbols

\(Do
\(Do dollar (N/A) dollar u0024

\(ct
¢ cent (N/A) cent u00A2 +

+

\(eu
\(eu --- (N/A) --- u20AC official Euro symbol

official Euro symbol

\(Eu
\(Eu Euro (N/A) Euro u20AC font-specific Euro glyph variant

font-specific Euro glyph variant

\(Ye
\(Ye yen (N/A) yen u00A5

\(Po
\(Po sterling (N/A) sterling u00A3 British currency sign

British currency sign

\(Cs
\(Cs currency (N/A) currency u00A4 Scandinavian currency sign

Scandinavian currency sign

\(Fn
\(Fn florin (N/A) florin u0192 Dutch currency sign

Dutch currency sign

Units

\(de
° degree (N/A) degree u00B0 +

+

\(%0
\(%0 perthousand (N/A) perthousand u2030 per thousand, per mille sign

per thousand, per mille sign

\(fm
' minute (N/A) minute u2032 footmark, prime +

footmark, prime +

\(sd
\(sd second (N/A) second u2033

\(mc
\(mc mu (N/A) mu u00B5 micro sign

micro sign

\(Of
\(Of ordfeminine (N/A) ordfeminine u00AA

\(Om
\(Om ordmasculine (N/A) ordmasculine u00BA

Logical Symbols

\(AN
\(AN logicaland (N/A) logicaland u2227

\(OR
\(OR logicalor (N/A) logicalor u2228

\(no
¬ logicalnot (N/A) logicalnot u00AC +

+

\[tno]
[tno] logicalnot (N/A) logicalnot u00AC text variant of ‘no’

text variant of ‘no’

\(te
\(te existential (N/A) existential u2203 there exists, existential quantifier

there exists, existential quantifier

\(fa
\(fa universal (N/A) universal u2200 for all, universal quantifier

for all, universal quantifier

\(st
\(st suchthat (N/A) suchthat u220B

\(3d
\(3d therefore (N/A) therefore u2234

\(tf
\(tf therefore (N/A) therefore u2234

\(or
| bar (N/A) bar u007C bitwise OR operator (as used in C) +

bitwise OR operator (as used in C) +

Mathematical Symbols

\(12
½ onehalf (N/A) onehalf u00BD +

+

\(14
¼ onequarter (N/A) onequarter u00BC +

+

\(34
¾ threequarters (N/A) threequarters u00BE +

+

\(18
\(18 oneeighth (N/A) oneeighth u215B

\(38
\(38 threeeighths (N/A) threeeighths u215C

\(58
\(58 fiveeighths (N/A) fiveeighths u215D

\(78
\(78 seveneighths (N/A) seveneighths u215E

\(S1
\(S1 onesuperior (N/A) onesuperior u00B9

\(S2
\(S2 twosuperior (N/A) twosuperior u00B2

\(S3
\(S3 threesuperior (N/A) threesuperior u00B3

\(pl
+ plus (N/A) plus u002B plus sign in special font +

plus sign in special font +

\(mi
- minus (N/A) minus u2212 minus sign in special font +

minus sign in special font +

\(-+
\(-+ uni2213 (N/A) uni2213 u2213

\(+-
± plusminus (N/A) plusminus u00B1 +

+

\[t+-]
[t+-] plusminus (N/A) plusminus u00B1 text variant of ‘+-’

text variant of ‘+-’

\(pc
\(pc periodcentered (N/A) periodcentered u00B7

\(md
\(md dotmath (N/A) dotmath u22C5 multiplication dot

multiplication dot

\(mu
× multiply (N/A) multiply u00D7 +

+

\[tmu]
[tmu] multiply (N/A) multiply u00D7 text variant of ‘mu’

text variant of ‘mu’

\(c*
\(c* circlemultiply (N/A) circlemultiply u2297 multiply sign in a circle

multiply sign in a circle

\(c+
\(c+ circleplus (N/A) circleplus u2295 plus sign in a circle

plus sign in a circle

\(di
÷ divide (N/A) divide u00F7 division sign +

division sign +

\[tdi]
[tdi] divide (N/A) divide u00F7 text variant of ‘di’

text variant of ‘di’

\(f/
\(f/ fraction (N/A) fraction u2044 bar for fractions

bar for fractions

\(**
* asteriskmath (N/A) asteriskmath u2217 +

+

\(<=
\(&lt;= lessequal (N/A) lessequal u2264 +

+

\(>=
\(&gt;= greaterequal (N/A) greaterequal u2265 +

+

\(<<
\(&lt;< uni226A (N/A) uni226A u226A much less

much less

\(>>
\(&gt;> uni226B (N/A) uni226B u226B much greater

much greater

\(eq
= equal (N/A) equal u003D equals sign in special font +

equals sign in special font +

\(!=
!= notequal (N/A) notequal u003D_0338 +

+

\(==
== equivalence (N/A) equivalence u2261 +

+

\(ne
\(ne uni2262 (N/A) uni2262 u2261_0338

\(=~
\(=~ congruent (N/A) congruent u2245 approx. equal

approx. equal

\(|=
\(|= uni2243 (N/A) uni2243 u2243 asymptot. equal to +

asymptot. equal to +

\(ap
~ similar (N/A) similar u223C +

+

\(~~
\(~~ approxequal (N/A) approxequal u2248 almost equal to

almost equal to

\(~=
~= approxequal (N/A) approxequal u2248

\(pt
~ proportional (N/A) proportional u221D +

+

\(es
Ø emptyset (N/A) emptyset u2205 +

+

\(mo
e element (N/A) element u2208 +

+

\(nm
\(nm notelement (N/A) notelement u2208_0338

\(sb
( propersubset (N/A) propersubset u2282 +

+

\(nb
\(nb notsubset (N/A) notsubset u2282_0338

\(sp
) propersuperset (N/A) propersuperset u2283 +

+

\(nc
\(nc uni2285 (N/A) uni2285 u2283_0338 not superset

not superset

\(ib
(= reflexsubset (N/A) reflexsubset u2286 +

+

\(ip
=) reflexsuperset (N/A) reflexsuperset u2287 +

+

\(ca
^ intersection (N/A) intersection u2229 intersection, cap +

intersection, cap +

\(cu
U union (N/A) union u222A union, cup +

union, cup +

\(/_
\(/_ angle (N/A) angle u2220

\(pp
\(pp perpendicular (N/A) perpendicular u22A5

\(is
I integral (N/A) integral u222B +

+

\[integral]
[integral] integral (N/A) integral u222B ***

***

\[sum]
[sum] summation (N/A) summation u2211 ***

***

\[product]
[product] product (N/A) product u220F ***

***

\[coproduct]
[coproduct] uni2210 (N/A) uni2210 u2210 ***

***

\(gr
V gradient (N/A) gradient u2207 +

+

\(sr
v/ radical (N/A) radical u221A square root +

square root +

\[sqrt]
[sqrt] radical (N/A) radical u221A ***

***

\[radicalex]
[radicalex] radicalex (N/A) radicalex --- continuation of square root

continuation of square root

\[sqrtex]
[sqrtex] radicalex (N/A) radicalex --- ***

***

\(lc
| uni2308 (N/A) uni2308 u2308 left ceiling +

left ceiling +

\(rc
| uni2309 (N/A) uni2309 u2309 right ceiling +

right ceiling +

\(lf
| uni230A (N/A) uni230A u230A left floor +

left floor +

\(rf
| uni230B (N/A) uni230B u230B right floor +

right floor +

\(if
oo infinity (N/A) infinity u221E +

+

\(Ah
\(Ah aleph (N/A) aleph u2135

\(Im
\(Im Ifraktur (N/A) Ifraktur u2111 Gothic I, imaginary

Gothic I, imaginary

\(Re
\(Re Rfraktur (N/A) Rfraktur u211C Gothic R, real

Gothic R, real

\(wp
\(wp weierstrass (N/A) weierstrass u2118 Weierstrass p

Weierstrass p

\(pd
6 partialdiff (N/A) partialdiff u2202 partial differentiation sign +

partial differentiation sign +

\(-h
\(-h uni210F (N/A) uni210F u210F Planck constant over two pi

Planck constant over two pi

\(hbar
\(hbar uni210F (N/A) uni210F u210F

Greek glyphs

These glyphs are intended for technical use, not for real Greek; normally, the uppercase letters have upright shape, and the lowercase ones are slanted. There is a problem with the mapping of letter phi to Unicode. Prior to Unicode version 3.0, the difference between U+03C6, GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI, and U+03D5, GREEK PHI SYMBOL, was not clearly described; only the glyph shapes in the Unicode book could be used as a reference. Starting with Unicode 3.0, the reference glyphs have been exchanged and described verbally also: In mathematical context, U+03D5 is the stroked variant and U+03C6 the curly glyph. Unfortunately, most font vendors didn’t update their fonts to this (incompatible) change in Unicode. At the time of this writing (January 2006), it is not clear yet whether the Adobe Glyph Names ‘phi’ and ‘phi1’ also change its meaning if used for mathematics, thus compatibility problems are likely to happen - being conservative, groff currently assumes that ‘phi’ in a PostScript symbol font is the stroked version.

In groff, symbol ‘\[*f]’ always denotes the stroked version of phi, and ‘\[+f]’ the curly variant.

\(*A
A Alpha (N/A) Alpha u0391 +

+

\(*B
B Beta (N/A) Beta u0392 +

+

\(*G
|_ Gamma (N/A) Gamma u0393 +

+

\(*D
/\ Delta (N/A) Delta u0394 +

+

\(*E
E Epsilon (N/A) Epsilon u0395 +

+

\(*Z
Z Zeta (N/A) Zeta u0396 +

+

\(*Y
H Eta (N/A) Eta u0397 +

+

\(*H
TH Theta (N/A) Theta u0398 +

+

\(*I
I Iota (N/A) Iota u0399 +

+

\(*K
K Kappa (N/A) Kappa u039A +

+

\(*L
L Lambda (N/A) Lambda u039B +

+

\(*M
M Mu (N/A) Mu u039C +

+

\(*N
N Nu (N/A) Nu u039D +

+

\(*C
Z Xi (N/A) Xi u039E +

+

\(*O
O Omicron (N/A) Omicron u039F +

+

\(*P
|| Pi (N/A) Pi u03A0 +

+

\(*R
P Rho (N/A) Rho u03A1 +

+

\(*S
S Sigma (N/A) Sigma u03A3 +

+

\(*T
T Tau (N/A) Tau u03A4 +

+

\(*U
Y Upsilon (N/A) Upsilon u03A5 +

+

\(*F
PH Phi (N/A) Phi u03A6 +

+

\(*X
X Chi (N/A) Chi u03A7 +

+

\(*Q
PS Psi (N/A) Psi u03A8 +

+

\(*W
O Omega (N/A) Omega u03A9 +

+

\(*a
a alpha (N/A) alpha u03B1 +

+

\(*b
ß beta (N/A) beta u03B2 +

+

\(*g
y gamma (N/A) gamma u03B3 +

+

\(*d
d delta (N/A) delta u03B4 +

+

\(*e
e epsilon (N/A) epsilon u03B5 +

+

\(*z
z zeta (N/A) zeta u03B6 +

+

\(*y
n eta (N/A) eta u03B7 +

+

\(*h
th theta (N/A) theta u03B8 +

+

\(*i
i iota (N/A) iota u03B9 +

+

\(*k
k kappa (N/A) kappa u03BA +

+

\(*l
l lambda (N/A) lambda u03BB +

+

\(*m
µ mu (N/A) mu u03BC +

+

\(*n
v nu (N/A) nu u03BD +

+

\(*c
3 xi (N/A) xi u03BE +

+

\(*o
o omicron (N/A) omicron u03BF +

+

\(*p
pi pi (N/A) pi u03C0 +

+

\(*r
p rho (N/A) rho u03C1 +

+

\(ts
s sigma1 (N/A) sigma1 u03C2 terminal sigma +

terminal sigma +

\(*s
s sigma (N/A) sigma u03C3 +

+

\(*t
t tau (N/A) tau u03C4 +

+

\(*u
u upsilon (N/A) upsilon u03C5 +

+

\(*f
ph phi (N/A) phi u03D5 (stroked glyph)+

(stroked glyph)+

\(*x
x chi (N/A) chi u03C7 +

+

\(*q
ps psi (N/A) psi u03C8 +

+

\(*w
o omega (N/A) omega u03C9 +

+

\(+h
\(+h theta1 (N/A) theta1 u03D1 variant theta

variant theta

\(+f
\(+f phi1 (N/A) phi1 u03C6 variant phi (curly shape)

variant phi (curly shape)

\(+p
\(+p omega1 (N/A) omega1 u03D6 variant pi, looking like omega

variant pi, looking like omega

\(+e
\(+e uni03F5 (N/A) uni03F5 u03F5 variant epsilon

variant epsilon

Card symbols

\(CL
\(CL club (N/A) club u2663 black club suit

black club suit

\(SP
\(SP spade (N/A) spade u2660 black spade suit

black spade suit

\(HE
\(HE heart (N/A) heart u2665 black heart suit

black heart suit

\(u2661
\(u2661 uni2661 (N/A) uni2661 u2661 white heart suit

white heart suit

\(DI
\(DI diamond (N/A) diamond u2666 black diamond suit

black diamond suit

\(u2662
\(u2662 uni2662 (N/A) uni2662 u2662 white diamond suit

white diamond suit

AUTHOR

Copyright © 1989-2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Documentation License) version 1.3 or later. You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU copyleft site

This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution. It was written by James Clark with additions by Werner Lemberg and Bernd Warken

SEE ALSO

groff(1)
  the GNU roff formatter
groff(7)
  a short reference of the groff formatting language
An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J. Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

The Unicode Standard


Groff Version 1.21 GROFF_CHAR (7) 25 June 2012
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