getnameinfo - address-to-name translation in protocol-independent manner
#include <sys/socket.h> #include <netdb.h>
int getnameinfo(const struct sockaddr *sa, socklen_t salen, char *host, size_t hostlen, char *serv, size_t servlen, int flags);
Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
getnameinfo(): _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 1 || _XOPEN_SOURCE || _POSIX_SOURCE
The getnameinfo() function is the inverse of getaddrinfo(3): it converts a socket address to a corresponding host and service, in a protocol-independent manner. It combines the functionality of gethostbyaddr(3) and getservbyport(3), but unlike those functions, getaddrinfo(3) is reentrant and allows programs to eliminate IPv4-versus-IPv6 dependencies.
The sa argument is a pointer to a generic socket address structure (of type sockaddr_in or sockaddr_in6) of size salen that holds the input IP address and port number. The arguments host and serv are pointers to caller-allocated buffers (of size hostlen and servlen respectively) into which getnameinfo() places null-terminated strings containing the host and service names respectively.
The caller can specify that no hostname (or no service name) is required by providing a NULL host (or serv) argument or a zero hostlen (or servlen) argument. However, at least one of hostname or service name must be requested.
The flags argument modifies the behavior of getnameinfo() as follows:
NI_NAMEREQD If set, then an error is returned if the hostname cannot be determined. NI_DGRAM If set, then the service is datagram (UDP) based rather than stream (TCP) based. This is required for the few ports (512-514) that have different services for UDP and TCP. NI_NOFQDN If set, return only the hostname part of the fully qualified domain name for local hosts. NI_NUMERICHOST If set, then the numeric form of the hostname is returned. (When not set, this will still happen in case the nodes name cannot be determined.) NI_NUMERICSERV If set, then the numeric form of the service address is returned. (When not set, this will still happen in case the services name cannot be determined.)
Starting with glibc 2.3.4, getnameinfo() has been extended to selectively allow hostnames to be transparently converted to and from the Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) format (see RFC 3490, Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)). Three new flags are defined:
NI_IDN If this flag is used, then the name found in the lookup process is converted from IDN format to the locales encoding if necessary. ASCII-only names are not affected by the conversion, which makes this flag usable in existing programs and environments. NI_IDN_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED, NI_IDN_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES Setting these flags will enable the IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED (allow unassigned Unicode code points) and IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES (check output to make sure it is a STD3 conforming hostname) flags respectively to be used in the IDNA handling.
On success 0 is returned, and node and service names, if requested, are filled with null-terminated strings, possibly truncated to fit the specified buffer lengths. On error one of the following nonzero error codes is returned:
The gai_strerror(3) function translates these error codes to a human readable string, suitable for error reporting.
EAI_AGAIN The name could not be resolved at this time. Try again later. EAI_BADFLAGS The flags argument has an invalid value. EAI_FAIL A nonrecoverable error occurred. EAI_FAMILY The address family was not recognized, or the address length was invalid for the specified family. EAI_MEMORY Out of memory. EAI_NONAME The name does not resolve for the supplied arguments. NI_NAMEREQD is set and the hosts name cannot be located, or neither hostname nor service name were requested. EAI_OVERFLOW The buffer pointed to by host or serv was too small. EAI_SYSTEM A system error occurred. The error code can be found in errno.
getnameinfo() is provided in glibc since version 2.1.
RFC 2553, POSIX.1-2001.
In order to assist the programmer in choosing reasonable sizes for the supplied buffers, <netdb.h> defines the constants
#define NI_MAXHOST 1025 #define NI_MAXSERV 32
Since glibc 2.8, these definitions are exposed only if one of the feature test macros _BSD_SOURCE, _SVID_SOURCE, or _GNU_SOURCE is defined.
The former is the constant MAXDNAME in recent versions of BINDs <arpa/nameser.h> header file. The latter is a guess based on the services listed in the current Assigned Numbers RFC.
The following code tries to get the numeric hostname and service name, for a given socket address. Note that there is no hardcoded reference to a particular address family.
struct sockaddr *sa; /* input */ socklen_t len; /* input */ char hbuf[NI_MAXHOST], sbuf[NI_MAXSERV];
if (getnameinfo(sa, len, hbuf, sizeof(hbuf), sbuf, sizeof(sbuf), NI_NUMERICHOST | NI_NUMERICSERV) == 0) printf("host=%s, serv=%s\n", hbuf, sbuf);
The following version checks if the socket address has a reverse address mapping.
struct sockaddr *sa; /* input */ socklen_t len; /* input */ char hbuf[NI_MAXHOST];
if (getnameinfo(sa, len, hbuf, sizeof(hbuf), NULL, 0, NI_NAMEREQD)) printf("could not resolve hostname"); else printf("host=%s\n", hbuf);
An example program using getnameinfo() can be found in getaddrinfo(3).
accept(2), getpeername(2), getsockname(2), recvfrom(2), socket(2), getaddrinfo(3), gethostbyaddr(3), getservbyname(3), getservbyport(3), inet_ntop(3), hosts(5), services(5), hostname(7), named(8)
R. Gilligan, S. Thomson, J. Bound and W. Stevens, Basic Socket Interface Extensions for IPv6, RFC 2553, March 1999.
Tatsuya Jinmei and Atsushi Onoe, An Extension of Format for IPv6 Scoped Addresses, internet draft, work in progress
Craig Metz, Protocol Independence Using the Sockets API, Proceedings of the freenix track: 2000 USENIX annual technical conference, June 2000
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