Manual Reference Pages  - DIRNAME (P)

PROLOG

This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer’s Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

CONTENTS

Name
Synopsis
Description
Options
Operands
Stdin
Input Files
Environment Variables
Asynchronous Events
Stdout
Stderr
Output Files
Extended Description
Exit Status
Consequences Of Errors
Application Usage
Examples
Rationale
Future Directions
See Also
Copyright

NAME

dirname - return the directory portion of a pathname

SYNOPSIS

dirname string

DESCRIPTION

The string operand shall be treated as a pathname, as defined in the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 3.266, Pathname. The string string shall be converted to the name of the directory containing the filename corresponding to the last pathname component in string, performing actions equivalent to the following steps in order:
1. If string is //, skip steps 2 to 5.
2. If string consists entirely of slash characters, string shall be set to a single slash character. In this case, skip steps 3 to 8.
3. If there are any trailing slash characters in string, they shall be removed.
4. If there are no slash characters remaining in string, string shall be set to a single period character. In this case, skip steps 5 to 8.
5. If there are any trailing non-slash characters in string, they shall be removed.
6. If the remaining string is //, it is implementation-defined whether steps 7 and 8 are skipped or processed.
7. If there are any trailing slash characters in string, they shall be removed.
8. If the remaining string is empty, string shall be set to a single slash character.

The resulting string shall be written to standard output.

OPTIONS

None.

OPERANDS

The following operand shall be supported:
string A string.

STDIN

Not used.

INPUT FILES

None.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

The following environment variables shall affect the execution of dirname:
LANG Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)
LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.
LC_CTYPE
  Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments).
LC_MESSAGES
  Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error.
NLSPATH Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS

Default.

STDOUT

The dirname utility shall write a line to the standard output in the following format:

"%s\n", <resulting string>

STDERR

The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES

None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION

None.

EXIT STATUS

The following exit values shall be returned:
0 Successful completion.
>0 An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS

Default.

The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE

The definition of pathname specifies implementation-defined behavior for pathnames starting with two slash characters. Therefore, applications shall not arbitrarily add slashes to the beginning of a pathname unless they can ensure that there are more or less than two or are prepared to deal with the implementation-defined consequences.

EXAMPLES

CommandResults    
dirname //    
dirname /// or //    
dirname /a/b//a    
dirname //a//b////a    
dirnameUnspecified    
dirname a. ($? = 0)    
dirname "". ($? = 0)    
dirname /a/    
dirname /a/b/a    
dirname a/ba    

RATIONALE

The dirname utility originated in System III. It has evolved through the System V releases to a version that matches the requirements specified in this description in System V Release 3. 4.3 BSD and earlier versions did not include dirname.

The behaviors of basename and dirname in this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 have been coordinated so that when string is a valid pathname:

$(basename "string")

would be a valid filename for the file in the directory:

$(dirname "string")

This would not work for the versions of these utilities in early proposals due to the way processing of trailing slashes was specified. Consideration was given to leaving processing unspecified if there were trailing slashes, but this cannot be done; the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 3.266, Pathname allows trailing slashes. The basename and dirname utilities have to specify consistent handling for all valid pathnames.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

None.

SEE ALSO

basename() , Parameters and Variables

COPYRIGHT

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .


IEEE/The Open Group DIRNAME (P) 2003
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