Manual Reference Pages  - DIR (1)

NAME

dir - list directory contents

CONTENTS

Synopsis
Description
Author
Copyright

SYNOPSIS

dir [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION

List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
-a, --all do not ignore entries starting with .
-A, --almost-all
  do not list implied . and ..
--author
  with -l, print the author of each file
-b, --escape
  print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters
--block-size=SIZE
  scale sizes by SIZE before printing them. E.g., ‘--block-size=M’ prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes. See SIZE format below.
-B, --ignore-backups
  do not list implied entries ending with ~
-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first
-C list entries by columns
--color[=WHEN]
  colorize the output. WHEN defaults to ‘always’ or can be ‘never’ or ‘auto’. More info below
-d, --directory
  list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference symbolic links
-D, --dired
  generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode
-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color
-F, --classify
  append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
--file-type
  likewise, except do not append ‘*’
--format=WORD
  across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
--full-time
  like -l --time-style=full-iso
-g like -l, but do not list owner
--group-directories-first
  group directories before files.
augment with a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping
-G, --no-group
  in a long listing, don’t print group names
-h, --human-readable
  with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
--si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-H, --dereference-command-line
  follow symbolic links listed on the command line
--dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
  follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory
--hide=PATTERN
  do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)
--indicator-style=WORD
  append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
-i, --inode
  print the index number of each file
-I, --ignore=PATTERN
  do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
-k like --block-size=1K
-l use a long listing format
-L, --dereference
  when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself
-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries
-n, --numeric-uid-gid
  like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
-N, --literal
  print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control characters specially)
-o like -l, but do not list group information
-p, --indicator-style=slash
  append / indicator to directories
-q, --hide-control-chars
  print ? instead of non graphic characters
--show-control-chars
  show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is ‘ls’ and output is a terminal)
-Q, --quote-name
  enclose entry names in double quotes
--quoting-style=WORD
  use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
-r, --reverse
  reverse order while sorting
-R, --recursive
  list subdirectories recursively
-s, --size print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
-S sort by file size
--sort=WORD
  sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension -X, size -S, time -t, version -v
--time=WORD
  with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c, or status -c; use specified time as sort key if --sort=time
--time-style=STYLE
  with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT. FORMAT is interpreted like ‘date’; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with ‘posix-’, STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
-t sort by modification time, newest first
-T, --tabsize=COLS
  assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time
-U do not sort; list entries in directory order
-v natural sort of (version) numbers within text
-w, --width=COLS
  assume screen width instead of current value
-x list entries by lines instead of by columns
-X sort alphabetically by entry extension
-Z, --context
  print any SELinux security context of each file
-1 list one file per line
--help display this help and exit
--version
  output version information and exit
SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following: KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with --color=never. With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.

    Exit status:

0 if OK,
1 if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
2 if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

AUTHOR

Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS

Report dir bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>
Report dir translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT

Copyright © 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO

The full documentation for dir is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and dir programs are properly installed at your site, the command
info coreutils dir invocation
should give you access to the complete manual.


GNU coreutils 8.12.197-032bb DIR (1) September 2011
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